Home / Physical factors / Circulation / Ingress IngressIngress relates to the safe entry to the sports ground. Ground management need to consider a number of factors to ensure safe and secure ingress is achieved at sports grounds. This includes having: a sufficient number of controlled entry points – in the form of turnstiles, gates or doors, staffed or automated – evenly distributed and serving each section of the ground, appropriate in number to process the holding capacity of that section, and the desired entry capacity. an accurate counting system at each entry point. This should be linked to the control point to ensure the safety officer is able to monitor the number of people in the ground at any time. These should also be adequately maintained to ensure they are reliable. entry points designed and operated to allow for the ingress of spectators at a rate that does not lead to congestion or delays outside the ground, yet also does not compromise the safety of spectators immediately after they have entered the ground. adequate stewarding and signage. entry systems that are appropriate in design for the security needs of the ground. entry points designed to be safe and secure for disabled people. If there are deficiencies in any of the elements that combine to form the ingress system – for example if there are too few entry points – the entry capacity will have to be lowered. This could result in a reduction of the overall capacity. Similarly, should there be any deficiencies in the management of the ingress system – for example if congestion occurs on a regular basis – there may also follow a reduction in the (S) factor. This too could lead to a further reduction in the overall capacity. Chapter 7 of the Green Guide provides full information about the requirements of ingress procedures. Learn more Calculating safe capacityLearn more Learn more Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds (Green Guide) Learn more Worked examples – capacity calculations Entry capacity – rates of entry The entry capacity is the rate at which people can pass through each entry point in one hour. Where the recorded rate of entry proves to be lower than 660 persons per entry point per hour for reasons other than low demand, that lower figure is the figure that should be used for the purposes of calculating the entry capacity. All rates of entry should be measured at least once a year and recorded. The rate of entry can be affect by a number of issues, including: admission policies, for example the means of entry (cash, ticket, entry card, etc) the efficiency and reliability of any electronic card entry systems in place the design and condition of entry points the capabilities of entry point personnel level and types of security screening in place. The Green Guide sets an upper limit of 660 persons per entry point per hour. Counting spectators Counting spectators accurately as they enter a sports ground is crucial for three reasons: prevent overcrowding enable the management to monitor the ingress process and react when necessary enable the management to calculate the ground’s entry capacity. All spectators entering all sections of the ground, including VIPs, should be counted at their point of entry, and the numbers recorded. This applies whatever is the means of entry, be it by cash payment, ticket, electronic card, security pass or badge. In order for the ground management to have instant access to the figures being counted at each entry point, and for the rates of admission to be accurately assessed, it is recommended that a computerised monitoring system should be installed wherever practicable.