Terrorism, Technology and Thinking – Key messages for Venue Safety

I had the privilege of being asked to speak at the Public Venue Security and Counter-Terrorism Summit in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, organised by the Bosco Training Institute. The SGSA often gets asked to speak at events around the world and, where we can, we try to do so because getting across the importance of safety on a world stage is a fantastic way to raise the profile of just how far we’ve come on the journey to make live sport safer.

One of the (few) benefits of a long-haul flight is the thinking time it affords you when you aren’t disturbed by phone calls and e-mails and I wanted to share some of my reflections on the main themes of the conference. No doubt these issues will be prevalent in other parts of the world and taken together they show that, despite progress, we cannot become complacent.

Terrorism knows no bounds

We’ve known for a long time that terrorist activity knows no bounds; even more so in the 24/7 digitally connected world that we now live in. However, there are nuances: different regions of the world with differing political climates face different terror threats. It’s important to recognise these cultural and political variations when developing and operating venues or events in different parts of the world and ensure that operational plans recognise unique threats and have embedded appropriate ways of mitigating them.

Sadly, the SGSA has seen first hand around the world what can happen when operational plans for events are not effective. Operational plans are critical but, as Helmuth van Moltke wrote in 1880, “No plan of operations reaches with any certainty beyond the first encounter with the enemy’s main force.” The same applies to spectators at an event and it is critical that systems and procedures are tested and reviewed in the light of experience so that safety can be improved in incremental steps.


Key Message Identifying and sharing good practice and reviewing plans post-event to see where risk could have been further reduced is key.


The Ugly Side of Technology

A key theme that emerged from the conference was the misuse of technology by people intent on causing harm. The acceleration and proliferation of technology has led to some incredible advances in smart stadiums, enabling spectators to truly engage with their sporting icons clubs, and leading to significant improvements in safety. As examples, safety critical information can now be shared quickly via mobile phones and crowd movements can be monitored wirelessly helping to improve the flow of people around a venue.

However, the threat of cyber-crime is significant, and constant vigilance is required and many governmental agencies and private sector companies are dedicated to the pursuit of prevention.

The same principles apply to other technologies such as drones. We saw in 2015 how a drone was used to carry political messaging leading to the outbreak of violence between Serbia and Albania. Drones also pose a payload threat and of course, the threat of physical injury to people within a venue.

Key message Technology will continue to advance – and rightly so – but we must remain open in our thinking as to potential misuse.


Thinking outside of the line

The boundaries of a venue, as defined on a plan or a safety certificate are often the boundary at which legal responsibility for spectators starts and ends for the venue operators. However, there is a moralobligation to ensure that consideration is given to the area beyond this line (which exists only on paper and is not painted on the floor).

Recent terrorist attacks, including that at the Ariana Grande concert in Manchester showed that whilst we can be very good at managing the ingress of people into a venue, we can do more to ensure a safe exit and onward transit.

The new version of the Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds, due in October this year, recognises this and offers guidance on this zone that is ‘external’ to the stadium boundary. We call it ‘Zone Ex’.

There are many challenges to ensuring safety in this area, not least of which is that it is unlikely that the venue owner has any legal responsibility for people within it. A multi-disciplinary approach is needed, working across disciplines such as safety, police, stadium management, ambulance and other key stakeholders to ensure that someone has the lead for safety in this area.

Key message Safety doesn’t end at the legal boundary of the stadium so nor should our thinking

Check the regulations


In February 2011 the Sports Grounds Safety Authority (SGSA) issued guidance to clubs on the safe handling and storage of flares and pyrotechnic devices. Since then the number of devices discharged at football grounds has increased and the range has diversified, including smoke bombs and thunderflashes as well as flares.

I’m a new Safety Officer, what do I need to know?

As a Safety Officer, you will need to be aware that the primary purpose of a safety certificate is to set the safe capacity of a designated ground or of a regulated stand at a non–designated ground. Find out more here


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SGSA Chief Executive Karen Eyre-White reflects on the verdicts of the Hillsborough Inquests

Equality And Human Rights Commission Report on Premier League Accessibility

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The new Green Guide is launched in late 2018. This page details what is different from the 5th version. Further details is provided in the Guide itself.

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Government review of evidence relating to the all-seater policy

Government has recently announced that it will commission an external analysis of evidence relating to the all-seater policy. Its aim is that initial analysis work will be completed by the end of 2018.

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Tools and resources

Guide to Safety Certification

This guidance updates and supersedes the guidance on safety certification issued by the Football Licensing Authority (FLA) in 2001.

ACT Awareness e-learning

ACT Awareness eLearning is a new CT awareness product designed for all UK based companies and organisations. Counter Terrorism Police are aiming to deliver awareness training to more than a million crowded places workers with the help of a ground-breaking new free of charge e-learning package.

Standing in Seated Areas

In this paper, from 2013, we examine the nature and causes of spectators standing in seated areas at Premier and Football League grounds.

Preparing Counter-Terrorism Measures

This document contains guidance for sports grounds and local authorities when considering their responsibilities to counter the terrorist threat to sports grounds.

Alternative uses of Sports Grounds

Alternative Uses provides guidance to stadium owners, operators, local authorities, promoters and event organisers to help adapt existing sports grounds to safely accommodate a range of events.

Safety Advisory Group – Terms of Reference Checklist

Certifying authorities considering whether to make changes to the SAG Terms of Reference as a result of the wider understanding of safety may find this checklist helpful.

Safety Management

Safety management at sports grounds has steadily become more sophisticated and more professional over the past twenty years. “Safety Management” draws together good practice on safety personnel, safety management procedures, event management and preparing for incidents.

Preventing Crowd Disorder and Anti-Social Behaviour

Guidance is available from the Sports Grounds Safety Authority (SGSA) on preventing crowd disorder and anti-social behaviour at sports grounds.


Concourses draws upon the views and experience of safety officers, leading stadia architects and engineers in addition to the survey work of the Core Cities group of local authorities. It examines how floor space factors are applied in other similar venues and contains clear advice on concourse occupancy levels and floor space factors which will provide an invaluable source of information for sports ground managers, designers, safety advisors and interested agencies when upgrading existing or designing new facilities at sports grounds.

Safety Certificate Checklist

This checklist may be helpful for certifying authorities when checking safety certificates for possible changes as a result of the wider understanding of safety

Safe and secure sports grounds for all sports

Following the terrorist incidents in France that took place in 2015, the UK National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO) has been reviewing its advice. The SGSA has been working with NaCTSO to ensure sports grounds are kept updated and has developed some advice specifically for sports grounds.


Reducing slip hazards on concourses

Advice and guidance on reducing slip hazards on concourses. with links to additional guidance via the Health and Safety Executive website.

Counter-terrorism in sports grounds

For a number of years the UK has been at a threat level of severe (an attack is highly likely) and ground management should have developed plans that are in place to provide protective security appropriate to that level.

Advice on Drones

You may be familiar with the scenes from the Partizan stadium during the Serbia v Albania Euro 2016 qualifying game, when a drone carrying a pro-Albanian flag landed on the pitch. The violence that ensued both on the pitch and in the stands is a reminder of how quickly situations can change.

How to calculate the safe capacity of a sports ground?

The responsibility for calculating the safe capacity of a ground rests with the ground management. Where any part or parts of a ground are covered by a safety certificate issued by the local authority the capacity calculated by ground management should be reviewed by the local authority and if validated included in the safety certificate. Further information and detail is available in the Green Guide.

What they're saying

The safe capacity calculations of all of our stadiums by SGSA was a game changer for us, we enforced the number strictly and all the fans really appreciated the more safe and welcoming environment at the venues.

Javier Ceppi. Local Organising Committee, FIFA Under 17 World Cup Tournament Director